Nelson Education

Contents

Foreword xi
Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xv

PART ONE / PATROL
1. WORKING THE STREETS 1
I. Introduction 1
II. Preparation for Patrol Duties 2
III. Working Your Patrol Area 4
IV. Street Knowledge 11
V. Developing Your Powers of Observation 14
VI. Checking Business Premises 17
VII. Investigating Suspicious Persons 20
VIII. Dealing with Suspicious Situations 21
IX. Reducing Public Hazards 23

2. ON THE RECORD 25
I. Notebooks 25
II. Reports 31
III. Obtaining Information 33

3. RESPONDING TO EMERGENCIES 39
I. Approaching Emergency Situations 39
II. Approaching Accident Scenes 41
III. Approaching Crime Scenes 42
IV. Homicide and Other Violent Crimes 51

4. STOPPING AND SEARCHING VEHICLES 56
I. Introduction 56
II. Procedures 57
III. The General Vehicle Stop 58
IV. The High-Risk Stop 62
V. Checking the Driver 65
VI. Searching the Suspect Vehicle 66
VII. Abandoned Vehicles 68

5. TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION 71
I. Introduction 71
II. Launching an Accident Investigation 71
III. Conducting the Accident Investigation 74
IV. Completing the Accident Investigation 78
V. Investigating Hit-and-Run Accidents 79
VI. Accidents Causing Death or Serious Injury 82

6. HAZARDS AND DISASTERS 84
I. General Procedures 84
II. Fallen Wires 84
III. Fires 85
IV. Explosives 87
V. Ice Storms 88
VI. Dangerous Gases and Chemicals 89
VII. Radioactive Materials 93
VIII. Aircraft Accidents 95

7. FIGHTING TERRORISM 97
I. Introduction 97
II. The Nature of Terrorism 98
III. Terrorism Defined 99
IV. Identifying Possible Terrorists 100
V. Patrol Officer’s Responsibilities 102
VI. Likely Terrorist Targets 103
VII. What Is Likely to Happen During an Attack 103

8. STREET PSYCHOLOGY 105
I. Domestic Gun Calls 105
II. Family Disputes 110
III. Hostage Situations 113
IV. Nuisance Offences 115

9. COMMUNITY POLICING 121
I. Introduction 121
II. The Principles and Practices of Community Policing 121
III. Building Community Partnerships 122
IV. Officer Qualifications 122
V. Skills and Training Required 123
VI. Community Policing Tactics 123
VII. Measuring Success 124
VIII. Benefits of Community Policing 125

PART TWO / CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION
10. SUSPECT INTERVIEWS 127
I. Introduction 127
II. Prerequisites for a Successful Interview 127
III. Conducting the Interview 131
IV. The Type A Suspect 137
V. The Type B Suspect 140
VI. Post-Interview Procedures 144
VII. Conclusion 144

11. THE CRIME SCENE 146
I. Introduction 146
II. The Crime Scene 146
III. The Search for Evidence 153
IV. Latent Fingerprint Evidence 159
V. Clothing as Evidence 165

12. FORENSIC SCIENCE 168
I. Introduction 168
II. Documents 168
III. Firearms 173
IV. Toolmark Evidence 185
V. Blood 188
VI. Seminal Stains 193
VII. Blunt Trauma 195
VIII. Hairs and Fibres 197
IX. Soils and Plant Materials 199
X. Metals 200
XI. Wood 202
XII. Paint 203
XIII. Glass 204
XIV. Drugs and Poisons 206
XV. Shoe Prints and Tire Treads 207
XVI. Fire Accelerants 210

13. MAJOR CASE MANAGEMENT 213
I. Introduction 213
II. Characteristics of a Major Case 213
III. Principal Goals of Major Case Investigations 214
IV. Controlling the Investigation 214
V. Information Control 217
VI. Sources of Information 219
VII. External Communications 221
VIII. Identification of Suspects 224
IX. Modus Operandi Analysis 227
X. Psychological Profiling 229

14. RAIDS AND SEARCHES 231
I. Introduction 231
II. Planning a Raid 231
III. Conducting the Raid 234
IV. Evidence: Looking for Possible Places of Concealment 235
V. Investigating Drug Operations: A Special Case 238

15. SURVEILLANCE 241
I. Introduction 241
II. Preparation for Surveillance 241
III. Types of Foot Surveillance 243
IV. Surveillance Tactics 246
V. Automobile Surveillance 250
VI. Fixed Surveillance 252

16. INTERNAL THEFT INVESTIGATION 254
I. Introduction 254
II. Investigation of Internal Thefts 256
III. Prevention Techniques 257

17. CRIME BY COMPUTER 261
I. Introduction 261
II. Types of Computer Crime 262
III. Warning Signs of Financial Computer Crime 264
IV. Examples of Computer-Crime Techniques 265
V. Methods of Access 266
VI. Profile of the Computer Criminal 268
VII. Countermeasures 271
VIII. Computer-Crime Investigation 272

18. IN THE WITNESS BOX 275
I. Preparing for Court 275
II. In Court 280

PART THREE / PERSONAL CHALLENGES
19. ETHICS 285
I. Introduction 285
II. Personal Factors Underlying Ethical Decisions 286
III. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas 287

20. JOB STRESS 292
I. Introduction 292
II. The Causes and Effects of Stress 293
III. Symptoms of Negative Stress Reaction (Burnout) 294
IV. Preventative Action 296

Appendix A: Key Word Chart—Suspect Descriptions 301
Appendix B: WHMIS Classes and Hazard Symbols 307
Appendix C: Commonly Used Drugs Chart 309
Appendix D: Blood Patterns and Direction 319
Appendix E: Types of Impact 321
Appendix F: Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 322
Index 331

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

1. Sample Notebook Page, 32
2. A High-Risk Stop, 64
3. Druggist’s Fold, 160
4. Components of a Cartridge, 174
5. Rifling, 177
6. Shotshells, 178
7. Bullet Direction, 206
8. Identification Form, 225
9. One-Person Surveillance, 244
10. Three-Person Surveillance, 245

LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS

1. Traffic Accident Investigation, 75
2. Airplane Accident Scene, 95
3. Domestic Violence Scene, 112
4. Footprints, 151
5. Fingerprints, 159
6. Clothing as Evidence, 166
7. Firearm Tattooing, 180
8. Blood Scene (Wall), 189
9. Blunt Force Trauma, 195
10. Arson Scene, 211
11. Drug Bust, 234

Interquest